Friday, September 6, 2019

the last Derbycon Brakesec podcast


This evening, we all came together to spend a bit of time talking about the final Derbycon. We talk to Mic Douglas about his 9 Derbycon appearances, Gary Rimar (piano player Extraordinare) talks about @litmoose's talk on how to tell C-Levels that their applications aren't good.

 

We also got asked about how the show came about, and how we found each other.

 

**Apologies for the echo in some parts... I did what I could to clean it up, but we were too close and the mics got a bit overzealous...**


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Saturday, August 31, 2019

2019-032-kubernetes security audit dicussion with Jay Beale and Aaron Small


Topics:

Infosec Campout report

Derbycon Pizza Party (with podcast show!)  https://www.eventbrite.com/e/brakesec-pizza-party-at-the-derbycon-mental-health-village-tickets-69219271705

Mental health village at Derbycon

 

Jay Beale (co-lead for audit) *Bust-a-Kube*  

Aaron Small (product mgr at GKE/Google)


Atreides Partners

Trail of Bits

 

What was the Audit? 

How did it come about? 

 

Who were the players?

    Kubernetes Working Group

        Aaron, Craig, Jay, Joel

    Outside vendors:

        Atredis: Josh, Nathan Keltner

        Trail of Bits: Stefan Edwards, Bobby Tonic , Dominik

    Kubernetes Project Leads/Devs

        Interviewed devs -- this was much of the info that went into the threat model

        Rapid Risk Assessments - let’s put the GitHub repository in the show notes

   

What did it produce?

    Vuln Report

    Threat Model - https://github.com/kubernetes/community/blob/master/wg-security-audit/findings/Kubernetes%20Threat%20Model.pdf

    White Papers

    https://github.com/kubernetes/community/tree/master/wg-security-audit/findings

 

    Discuss the results:

        Threat model findings

            Controls silently fail, leading to a false sense of security

                Pod Security Policies, Egress Network Rules

            Audit model isn’t strong enough for non-repudiation

                By default, API server doesn’t log user movements through system

            TLS Encryption weaknesses

                Most components accept cleartext HTTP

                Boot strapping to add Kubelets is particularly weak       

                Multiple components do not check certificates and/or use self-signed certs

                HTTPS isn’t enforced

                Certificates are long-lived, with no revocation capability

                Etcd doesn’t authenticate connections by default

            Controllers all Bundled together

                Confused Deputy: b/c lower priv controllers bundled in same binary as higher

            Secrets not encrypted at rest by default

            Etcd doesn’t have signatures on its write-ahead log

            DoS attack: you can set anti-affinity on your pods to get nothing else scheduled on their nodes

 

            Port 10255 has an unauthenticated HTTP server for status and health checking


        Vulns / Findings (not complete list, but interesting)

            Hostpath pod security policy bypass via persistent volumes

            TOCTOU when moving PID to manager’s group

            Improperly patched directory traversal in kubectl cp

            Bearer tokens revealed in logs

            Lots of MitM risk:

            SSH not checking fingerprints: InsecureIgnoreHostKey

            gRPC transport seems all set to WithInsecure()

HTTPS connections not checking certs 

            Some HTTPS connections are unauthenticated

            Output encoding on JSON construction

                This might lead to further work, as JSON can get written to logs that may be consumed elsewhere.

            Non-constant time check on passwords

Lack of re-use / library-ification of code

 

    Who will use these findings and how? Devs, google, bad guys? 

    Any new audit tools created from this? 

 

Brad geesaman “Hacking and Hardening Kubernetes Clusters by Example [I] - Brad Geesaman, Symantec   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vTgQLzeBfRU

 

Aaron Small: 

https://cloud.google.com/blog/products/gcp/precious-cargo-securing-containers-with-kubernetes-engine-18 

https://cloud.google.com/blog/products/gcp/exploring-container-security-running-a-tight-ship-with-kubernetes-engine-1-10

https://cloud.google.com/kubernetes-engine/docs/how-to/hardening-your-cluster 

 

CNCF:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=90kZRyPcRZw 




Findings:

   

 

Scope for testing:

        Source code review (what languages did they have to review?)

            Golang, shell, ...

 

Networking (discuss the networking *internal* *external*

Cryptography (TLS, data stores)

AuthN/AuthZ 

RBAC (which roles were tested? Just admin/non-admin *best practice is no admin/least priv*)

Secrets

Namespace traversals

Namespace claims

 

Methodology:


Setup a bunch of environments?

    Primarily set up a single environment IIRC

    Combination of code audit and active ?fuzzing?

        What does one fuzz on a K8s environment?

Tested with latest alpha or production versions?

    Version 1.13 or 1.14 - version locked at whatever was current - K8S releases a new version every 3 months, so this is a challenge and means we have to keep auditing.

Tested mulitple different types of k8s implementations?

    Tested primarily against kubespray (https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/kubespray)


Bug Bounty program:

https://github.com/kubernetes/community/blob/master/contributors/guide/bug-bounty.md

 

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Thursday, August 15, 2019

2019-031- Dissecting a Social engineering attack (Part 2)


 

Intro - Ms. DirInfosec “Anna”

Call Centers suffer from wanting to give good customer service and need to move the call along.

    Metrics are tailored to support an environment conducive to these kinds of attacks

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_engineering_(security)

Social engineering will prey on people’s altruism 

    “Pregnant woman needing help through the security door”

    “Person on crutches”
    “Delivery person with arms full”

    “Can’t remember information, others filling in missing bits”

    Call Center Reps are _paid_ to be helpful. “Customer is never wrong”

 

Creating a sense of urgency to spur action

 

Real-life scenario: "bob calls asking about status of an order"

Questions: 

  1. What were you doing for training prior to these calls? (it’s alright if you weren’t doing anything) :)

Pre-training audio (#1 and #2)

 

  1. What was their reaction about the calls received?

 

  1. Did the training take the first time?
    1. What difficulties did you have after the first training?
    2. ‘Getting better Audio’ (#3)
    1. Fake calls?
    2. Show examples?
  2. Talk about the training, what kind of training:
    1. Post audio (#4 and #5)
  3. How did your call center reps handle the training?
  4. For a business standpoint, what had to be changed to accommodate the new processes

 

https://www.pindrop.com/blog/tackling-113-fraud-increase-call-centers-webinar-recap/

https://www.bai.org/banking-strategies/article-detail/beating-crooks-at-call-center-fraud

 

@consultingCSO on twitter

 

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Wednesday, July 31, 2019

2019-029-dissecting a real Social engineering attack (part 1)


Intro - Ms. DirInfosec “Anna”

Call Centers suffer from wanting to give good customer service and need to move the call along.

    Metrics are tailored to support an environment conducive to these kinds of attacks

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_engineering_(security)

Social engineering will prey on people’s altruism 

    “Pregnant woman needing help through the security door”

    “Person on crutches”
    “Delivery person with arms full”

    “Can’t remember information, others filling in missing bits”

    Call Center Reps are _paid_ to be helpful. “Customer is never wrong”

 

Creating a sense of urgency to spur action


Real-life scenario: "bob calls asking about status of an order"

Questions: 

  1. What were you doing for training prior to these calls? (it’s alright if you weren’t doing anything) :)

Pre-training audio (#1 and #2)

 

  1. What was their reaction about the calls received?

 

  1. Did the training take the first time?
    1. What difficulties did you have after the first training?
    2. ‘Getting better Audio’ (#3)
    1. Fake calls?
    2. Show examples?
  2. Talk about the training, what kind of training:
    1. Post audio (#4 and #5)
  3. How did your call center reps handle the training?
  4. For a business standpoint, what had to be changed to accommodate the new processes

 

https://www.pindrop.com/blog/tackling-113-fraud-increase-call-centers-webinar-recap/

https://www.bai.org/banking-strategies/article-detail/beating-crooks-at-call-center-fraud

 

@consultingCSO on twitter

 

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Tuesday, July 23, 2019

2019-028-fileless_malware_campaign,privacy issues with email integration-new_zip_bomb_record


FIleless malware campaign - https://www.microsoft.com/security/blog/2019/07/08/dismantling-a-fileless-campaign-microsoft-defender-atp-next-gen-protection-exposes-astaroth-attack/

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/security/threat-protection/intelligence/fileless-threats

 

https://www.andreafortuna.org/2017/12/08/what-is-reflective-dll-injection-and-how-can-be-detected/


https://www.extremetech.com/computing/294852-new-zip-bomb-stuffs-4-5pb-of-data-into-46mb-file 

 

https://articles.forensicfocus.com/2019/07/15/finding-and-interpreting-windows-firewall-rules/



https://www.theregister.co.uk/2019/02/11/google_gmail_developer/     

Privacy issues:

    Companies integrating with email systems

    Pulling all information from the inboxes

    Collecting that information

    Storing for long periods of time (‘training the AI’)

    Check for SOC2 and press them on their data storage and privacy policies

    Have language in your 3rd party agreements to understand sharing and collection

 

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Cool Tools:

https://github.com/AxtMueller/Windows-Kernel-Explorer

https://github.com/TheSecondSun/Revssl


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Sunday, July 14, 2019

2019-027-GDPR fines for British Airways, FTC fines Facebook, Zooma-palooza


MITRE Pre-Attack techniques https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/pre/

https://www.bbc.com/news/business-48905907

Zoom - https://www.wired.com/story/zoom-flaw-web-server-fix/

 

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